The course aims to bring the student closer to the political-constitutional history of the German world of the long nineteenth century (1800-1918). The central object of the course will be
1. the late and contrasted process of transition from the absolute state to the constitutional one in the 2 main states of the German Confederation (1815-1866), namely Austria and Prussia,
2. the introduction here of the first modern parliamentary-representative institutions, that is at least partially freely elected.
At the end of the course the student will be able to:
1. to know times and circumstances of the transition from the cetual / absolute, or in any case pre-constitutional state, to the constitutional one in the Austrian Empire and in Prussia / Germany,
2. to historically frame the period of introduction and the distinctive characteristics of the monarchical-constitutional form of government,
3. to recognize the relationship established within the new form of monarchical-constitutional government between (monarchical) government on the one hand and parliament on the other,
4. to distinguish historically and on the basis of the study of two concrete state cases between a liberal state and one at least formally democratic, ie between different types and models of the modern state, as well as between two different forms of political government, ie between a at least formally constitutional monarchy and a solid parliamentary monarchy.
The course intends to bring the student closer to the political-constitutional history of the German world during the long nineteenth century, with particular attention to the late and contrasted transition process from the absolute regime to the constitutional one of the main states of the German Confederation (1815-1866), namely Austria and Prussia. At the end of the course the student will be able to: - know about the modalities, times and circumstances of the transition from the absolute (or cetual) regime to the constitutional regime, and to illustrate the new relationship established within the constitutional state between (monarchical) government and representative institutions.
The course, entitled: Constitutional history of the German world in the long nineteenth century, takes place at the headquarters of Trento and is divided into lectures during which it will be distributed, as needed, educational materials such as geographical maps, constitutional and / or legislative texts to aid in understanding and exemplifying the issues addressed.
It is not presupposed by the student any basic knowledge and / or skill (the use of technical-specialist concepts will be adequately introduced) but only the propensity to look at the history of the German states, in particular of Prussia and of the Austrian Empire, from the 'special' point of view of political and institutional history.
The contents of the course will be:
1. The main features of the Austrian and German absolute State until the foundation, by resolution of the Congress of Vienna, of the German Confederation and beyond (1800-1848).
2. The constitutionalization of the German-southern States in the Vormärz, and the main historical-political-constitutional problems that were on the political agenda before the belated transition to the constitutional state in both Austria and Germany in 1848.
3. The start of the constitutionalization process of Prussia and Austria in 1848.
4. The difficulties encountered by the process of constitutionalization, especially in Austria but also in Germany, during the 1950s.
5. The parliamentary-representative institutions introduced in Austria and Prussia through the new constitutional papers and their role within the overall political system, especially in relation to the Monarch and his Government.
6. Lines of affirmation and evolution of the modern parliamentary-representative system in Prussia / Germany and in the Austrian Empire until the First World War.
It is strongly recommended frequency.
Group A on Prussia/ Germany:
- Anna Gianna Manca, Costituzione e amministrazione della monarchia prussiana (1848-1870), Bologna, Il Mulino, 2016 (from beginning to p 87 and pp. 139-205).
- Heinrich August Winkler, Grande storia della Germania. Un lungo cammino verso Occidente, Roma 2004, pp. 145-232;
- H.-U. Wehler, L'impero guglielmino 1871-1918, foreword by Pierangelo Schiera, Bari 1981, pp. 31-50 and 69-147;
- V. Sellin, L'unità nazionale, la legittimità imperiale e la caduta di Guglielmo II nel 1918, in Marina Tesoro (ed), Monarchia, tradizione, identità nazionale, Milano 2004, pp. 9-20.
Group B on Austria:
- Brigitte Mazohl, Lo sviluppo della problematica costituzionale dopo la rivoluzione del ’48, in P. Schiera (ed), La dinamica statale austriaca nel XVIII e XIX secolo. Strutture e tendenze di storia costituzionale prima e dopo Maria Teresa, Bologna 1981, pp. 305-322
- Brigitte Mazohl, Costituzioni e costituenti nell'Europa del 1848-49, il caso dell'Austria e dell'Ungheria, in P. L. Ballini (ed.), 1848-1849. Costituenti e Costituzioni. Daniele Manin e la repubblica di Venezia, Venezia 2002, pp. 15-30;
- Brigitte Mazohl, L’Impero austriaco e l’unità italiana, in «Archivio storico lombardo», vol. XVIII of the twelfth series, CXXXIX, 2013, pp. 93-119;
- Giorgio Bongiovanni, Reine Rechtslehre e dottrina giuridica dello Stato. Hans Kelsen e la costituzione austriaca del 1920, Milano 1998, pp. 143-207;
- Antonio Traversa (edited by), La costituzione della repubblica austriaca, Firenze, Sansoni, 1946, pp. 5-118.
The assessment of learning will take place through an oral test on the knowledge of one of the two groups of reference texts (A, B). The verification of learning for non-attending students will consist of an oral exam as for attending students.