Acquisition of an adequate skill as well as historical-methodological, historical-factual and historical- conceptual competences, for a comparative and interdisciplinary understanding (history, law, political science) of the main innovations introduced by the modern Constitutions of the Nineteenth and Twentieth centuries.
In the course, entitled The constitutional dualism between Parliament and Government in the constitutional monarchy of the Kingdom of Italy (1848-1922), will be dealt with the period between 1848 and 1922 from the point of view of the political-constitutional history. The period of time taken into account goes from the establishment in Piedmont 1848 of the modern representative system , which was extended 1861 to the entire newly established Kingdom of Italy, until to the rise to power of fascism. The attention will be focused on the two main institutions of the political system of the Italian constitutional monarchy, namely Parliament and (monarchical) Government, as well as on their relationships in the political history of the Italian constitutional monarchy during the liberal age.
1. Starting from the pre-constitutional period the transition of the italian peninsula from the Napoleonic period to the Restoration era up to 1848 will be illustrated .
2. Then it will be analyzed the transition 1848 of the Sardinian Kingdom to a constitutional state through the adoption of the Albertine Statute.
3. It will be analyzed the two-chamber political system erected in the Kingdom of Sardinia on the basis of the Albertino Statute; the new representative system was based on a Chamber of elected Representatives and on a Senate appointed by the King.
4. By describing the new role assumed by the King in the new (monarchical-)constitutional system, the new institutions of the Executive, ie the Council of Ministers (Cabinet) and the President of the Council (Premier) , which both aimed to limite the power of the monarch. will be also highlighted.
5. Then will be followed the events of the new representative and executive institutions within the Kingdom of Italy, as well as the changes and transformations to which they went.
The course will be developped through frontal lessons. It will be also used official sources such as laws, ordinances, parliamentary acts. The student may submit to the attention of the teacher his critical reflections on the subject of the lessons.
It is strongly recommended frequency.
The course aims to acquire knowledge on origins, structure, working and change of modern apical political institutions (Parliament and Government) of the Italian political system during the so-called long nineteenth century (until 1914 - 1922); the student will thus have the opportunity to reflect upon the continuities and / or discontinuities of the Italian constitutional history.
At the end of the classes the student will be able to:
1. to know how it happened in our peninsula, and even before in the Kingdom of Sardinia, the transition from an absolute form of government to a constitutional one, and to measure the distance that there is between our present political system and the monarchical-constitutional one;
2. to acquire a deep knowledge of the letter but above all of the implementation of the Albertine Statute, whose determinations were at the basis of the constitutional (monarchical-) form of government, as it was introduced in our peninsula, and to touch what was under some respects very far away from our present political system and very close to her under other ones;
3. to roughly reconstruct the complex and changeable relationship that existed during the (monarchical-) constitutional era between Parliament and (monarchical) Government;
4. to penetrate the concrete working of the bicameral representative system of the Kingdom of Sardinia first and then of the Kingdom of Italy and to understand on this basis the close nexus existing in modern times and in general between the electoral system and the political one, being the first the angular stone of the second;
5. to frame the role, often underestimated by post-war historiography, carried out by the Monarch in the regulation of the political system.
No basic knowledge and/or skill is assumed as already be acquired by the student.
1) - Martucci, Roberto, Storia costituzionale italiana. Dallo Statuto albertino alla Repubblica (1848-2001), Roma, Carocci, 2002, sino a p. 197;
2) Luigi Musella, Il trasformismo, Bologna , Il Mulino, 2003, sino a p. 97;
3) Daniela Novarese, Le istituzioni politiche della Restaurazione, in Marco Meriggi – Leonida Tedoldi (a cura di), Storia delle istituzioni politiche. Dall’antico regime all’era globale, Roma, Carocci, 2014, pp. 103-127.
Verification of learning will take place for the attending students through an oral exam upon the text of R. Martucci indicated in the n.1 of the bibliography.
For not attending students, verification of learning will consist of an oral exam on Martucci's text and also on two more texts, ie the two suggested by the numbers 2) and 3) of bibliography.